UNMANNED VEHICLE SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS ON AIR, SEA, LAND
By Nichols, R. K., Ryan, J., J.C.H., Mumm, H.C., Lonstein, W.D., Carter, C., Hood, J.P, Mai, R., Shay, J., & Jackson, M.
This is our fourth textbook in a series previously covering the world of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems (CUAS). Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the Cyber Domain: Protecting USA’s Advanced Air Assets, 2nd edition and Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technologies and Operations have seen considerable global recognition in the field. (Nichols R. , et al., 2019) (Nichols R. , et al., 2020)
The authors have expanded our purview beyond UAS / CUAS systems. Our title shows our concern for growth and unique operations for all unmanned vehicles in all theaters: Air, Sea and Land. Three different factors have spurred the authors into expanding our textbook offerings. First, unmanned technology has seen an economic explosion in production, sales, testing, specialized designs, and friendly / hostile usages of deployed UAS / UAVs / Drones / UUVs / UDV / UGTs (hereafter referred to as a group as UVs). There is a huge global growing market and entrepreneurs know it. Small UV companies have been reproducing like rabbits. Many companies are exploring / creating new, unique, and profitable unmanned technologies for all military branches, LEO, commercial, high-mountain and deep-sea rescue, and recreational purposes. Covid-19 has brought a new dimension to UV planning and designs for medical and rescue missions.
Second, hostile use of UVs is on the forefront of DoD defense and offensive planners. They are especially concerned with SWARM behaviors in the air, over land and a new threat of underwater. The influence of IoT, AI and Cyber technologies has complicated the defense planning mission
Third, UV technology has outpacing our first and second editions plus our textbook on CUAS. Everyday our writers group read / discussed new UAS / UV developments in navigation, weapons, surveillance, data transfer, fuel cells, stealth, weight distribution, tactics, GPS / GNSS ( and replacement technologies) elements, SCADA protections, privacy invasions, legislation, big-data usage, terrorist uses, cryptographic protections, pressure protection for deep water exploration, maintenance, rescue or intelligence gathering; ASW, and defense; specialized software and security protocols and more. As authors we felt compelled to address at least the edge of some of these new UV developments. It was clear that we would be lucky if we could cover some of the more interesting and priority technology updates for the various UV AOs.
Expanded purview means more experience was needed to write our newest work. We are privileged to add to original writing team of Nichols, Ryan, Mumm, Lonstein, Carter, and Hood new SMEs in the various UV technologies: Mai, Jackson, and Shay. Their extensive backgrounds are found in our tribute to the authors in a latter section.
Here is an outline of topics in our latest work: SECTION 1: UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
Chapter 1 Information Advances, Remote ID, & Extreme Persistence ISR [Ryan]
Chapter 2 : Unmanned Aerial Vehicles & How They Can Augment Mesonet Weather Tower Data Collection [Mai]
Chapter 3 Tour de Drones for the Discerning Palate [Nichols]
SECTION 2: UNMANNED UNDERWATER SYSTEMS
Chapter 4 Underwater Autonomous Navigation & other UUV Advances [Mumm]
Chapter 5 Autonomous Maritime Asymmetric Systems [Hood]
Chapter 6 UUV Integrated Autonomous Missions & Drone Management [Mumm]
Chapter 7 Principles of Naval Architecture Applied to UUV’s [Jackson]
SECTION 3: UNMANNED VEHICLES FOR GROUND / LAND OPERATIONS & Penetration of ADS
Chapter 8 : Unmanned Logistics Operating Safely & Efficiently Across Multiple Domains [Lonstein]
Chapter 9 Chinese Advances in Stealth UAV Penetration Path Planning in Combat Environment [Nichols]
SECTION 4: UNMANNED VEHICLES WEAPONS FOR C4ISR & POPULATION TRACKING & CONTROL
Chapter 10 UAS, the Fourth Amendment and Privacy [Shay]
Chapter 11 UV & Disinformation / Misinformation Channels [Ryan]
SECTION 5: UV GEOPOLITICAL & LEGAL ADVANCES
Chapter 12 Chinese UAS Proliferation along New Silk Road Sea / Land Routes [Carter]
Chapter 13 Automaton, AI, Law, Ethics, Crossing the Machine – Human Barrier [Lonstein]
Chapter 14 Maritime Cybersecurity [Nichols]
We trust our newest look at Unmanned Vehicles in Air , Sea and Land will enrich our students and readers understanding of the purview of this wonderful technology we call UV.
As the quarter-century mark in the 21st Century nears, new aviation-related equipment has come to the forefront, both to help us and to haunt us. (Coutu, 2020) This is particularly the case with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). These vehicles have grown in popularity and accessible to everyone. Of different shapes and sizes, they are widely available for purchase at relatively low prices. They have moved from the backyard recreation status to important tools for the military, intelligence agencies, and corporate organizations. New practical applications such as military equipment and weaponry are announced on a regular basis – globally. (Coutu, 2020) Every country seems to be announcing steps forward in this bludgeoning field.
In our successful 2nd edition of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the Cyber Domain: Protecting USA’s Advanced Air Assets (Nichols, et al., 2019), the authors addressed three factors influencing UAS phenomena. First, unmanned aircraft technology has seen an economic explosion in production, sales, testing, specialized designs, and friendly/hostile usages of deployed UAS / UAVs / Drones. There is a huge global growing market and entrepreneurs know it. Second, hostile use of UAS is on the forefront of DoD defense and offensive planners. They are especially concerned with SWARM behavior. Movies like “Angel has Fallen,” where drones in a SWARM use facial recognition technology to kill USSS agents protecting POTUS, have built the lore of UAS and brought the problem forefront to DHS. Third, UAS technology was exploding. UAS and Counter- UAS developments in navigation, weapons, surveillance, data transfer, fuel cells, stealth, weight distribution, tactics, GPS / GNSS elements, SCADA protections, privacy invasions, terrorist uses, specialized software, and security protocols have exploded. (Nichols, et al., 2019) Our team has followed/tracked joint ventures between military and corporate entities and specialized labs to build UAS countermeasures.
As authors, we felt compelled to address at least the edge of some of the new C-UAS developments. It was clear that we would be lucky if we could cover a few of – the more interesting and priority technology updates – all in the UNCLASSIFIED and OPEN sphere.
Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Technologies and Operations is the companion textbook to our 2nd edition. The civilian market is interesting and entrepreneurial, but the military and intelligence markets are of concern because the US does NOT lead the pack in C-UAS technologies. China does. China continues to execute its UAS proliferation along the New Silk Road Sea / Land routes (NSRL). It has maintained a 7% growth in military spending each year to support its buildup. (Nichols, et al., 2019) [Chapter 21]. They continue to innovate and have recently improved a solution for UAS flight endurance issues with the development of advanced hydrogen fuel cell. (Nichols, et al., 2019) Reed and Trubetskoy presented a terrifying map of countries in the Middle East with armed drones and their manufacturing origin. Guess who? China. (A.B. Tabriski & Justin, 2018, December)
Our C-UAS textbook has as its primary mission to educate and train resources who will enter the UAS / C-UAS field and trust it will act as a call to arms for military and DHS planners.
Publication Date: Winter 2-1-2020
Publisher: New Prairie Press
Editor: Professor Randall K. Nichols
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Aeronautical Vehicles | Aerospace Engineering | Aviation and Space Education | Higher Education | Other Aerospace Engineering
Nichols, Randall K.; Mumm, Hans C.; Lonstein, Wayne D.; Ryan, Julie J.C.H; Carter, Candice; and Hood, John-Paul, “Counter Unmanned Aircraft Systems Technologies and Operations” (2020). NPP eBooks. 31.
What you will learn:
Unmanned Aircraft Systems are an integral part of the US national critical infrastructure. The authors have endeavored to bring a breadth and quality of information to the reader that is unparalleled in the unclassified sphere. This textbook will fully immerse and engage the reader/student in the cyber-security considerations of this rapidly emerging technology that we know as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS).
The first edition topics covered National Airspace (NAS) policy issues, information security (INFOSEC), UAS vulnerabilities in key systems (Sense and Avoid / SCADA), navigation and collision avoidance systems, stealth design, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms; weapons systems security; electronic warfare considerations; data-links, jamming operational vulnerabilities and still-emerging political scenarios that affect US military / commercial decisions.
This second edition discusses state-of-the-art technology issues facing US UAS designers. It focuses on counter unmanned aircraft systems (C-UAS) – especially research designed to mitigate and terminate threats by SWARMS. Topics include high-altitude platforms (HAPS) for wireless communications; C-UAS and large scale threats; acoustic countermeasures against SWARMS and building an Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) acoustic library; updates to the legal / regulatory landscape; UAS proliferation along the Chinese New Silk Road Sea / Land routes; and ethics in this new age of autonomous systems and artificial intelligence (AI).
What you will learn:
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are an integral part of the US national critical infrastructure. They must be protected from hostile intent or use to the same level as any other military or commercial asset involved in US national security. However, from the Spratly Islands to Djibouti to heartland America, the expanding Chinese Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS / Drone) industry has outpaced the US technologically and numerically on all fronts: military, commercial, and recreational. Both countries found that there were large information security gaps in unmanned systems that could be exploited on the international cyber-security stage. Many of those gaps remain today and are direct threats to US advanced Air Assets if not mitigated upfront by UAS designers and manufacturers. The authors contend that US military / commercial developers of UAS hardware and software must perform cyber risk assessments and mitigations prior to delivery of UAS systems to stay internationally competitive and secure. The authors have endeavored to bring a breadth and quality of information to the reader that is unparalleled in the unclassified sphere. This book will fully immerse and engage the reader in the cyber-security considerations of this rapidly emerging technology that we know as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Topics covered include National Airspace (NAS) policy issues, information security, UAS vulnerabilities in key systems (Sense and Avoid / SCADA), collision avoidance systems, stealth design, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms; weapons systems security; electronic warfare considerations; data-links, jamming operational vulnerabilities and still-emerging political scenarios that affect US military / commercial decisions.
What you will learn:
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What you will learn:
- How complexity leadership can solve the policy disconnect between the FAA and the drone user community.
- Applying complexity leadership theory will expedite the Federal Aviation Rulemaking Committees decision making processes that are currently linear and authoritarian in nature which is preventing the development of any timely rules for integrating drones/UAVs into the National Air Space.
- How complexity leadership creates the vision to the simplest path possible for the drone/UAV community to integrate fully into the National Airspace System.
- Reviews latest research in the use and integration of complexity theory leadership as it applies to Drone Airspace Integration
- Illustrates the value of implementing, non-linear, non-authoritarian and self-organizing approaches to problem solving.
” In this era of covertly evolving threats to our national and homeland security, and the complicated leadership that is required to manage the safety and security of our society, Dr. Mumm’s intellectual and tactical prowess has given us that needed edge in this book. His work on applying the complexity leadership theory to managing drone airspace, in support of our local and global security affairs, is a paradigm for managing what can be considered an unmanageable political arena.”
-Michael L. Hummel, Ph.D. Professor and Chair, Department of Criminal Justice, California University of Pennsylvania